nStatNum            FT_NWLSTAT()
nRc                 FT_NWSEMCLOSE( <nHandle> )
nRc                 FT_NWSEMEX( <nHandle>, <@nValue>, <@nOpenCnt> )
lRet                FT_NWSEMLOCK ( <cSemaphore>, <@nHandle> )
nRc                 FT_NWSEMOPEN( <cName>, <nInitVal>, <@nHandle>, <@nOpenCnt> )
nRc                 FT_NWSEMSIG( nHandle )
lRet                FT_NWSEMUNLOCK( <nHandle> )
nRc                 FT_NWSEMWAIT( <nHandle> [, nTimeout ] )
cUid                FT_NWUID( [ <nConnection> ] )


Function FT_NWLSTAT()

 FT_NWLSTAT() --> nStatNum

In order to find out information about a particular node logged in to a NetWare server, you will need the logical station number, also known as a "connection number." This function will return that number. This will be a number from 1 to 100 under NetWare 286, or from 1 to 250 under NetWare 386. This is *not* the same as a physical station number.

This function requires FT_INT86().

This function does NOT test for the existence of the NetWare shell. The behavior is undefined if no shell is loaded.


 FT_NWSEMCLOSE( <nHandle> ) --> nRc

Call FT_NWSEMCLOSE() when the app is finished. This decrements the open count for the semaphore. If the open count hits zero, the semaphore is deleted by NetWare.

Function FT_NWSEMEX()

 FT_NWSEMEX( <nHandle>, <@nValue>, <@nOpenCnt> ) --> nRc

See the description for FT_NWSEMOPEN().


 FT_NWSEMLOCK ( <cSemaphore>, <@nHandle> ) --> lRet

FT_NWSEMLOCK() uses the Nanforum Toolkit's NetWare Semaphore API functions in order to provide a general purpose "lock" you can use in a NetWare environment.

An interesting byproduct of NetWare's semaphore functions is the "open count" which tells you how many connections have this semaphore open. This is different from the semaphore's _value_, which is set when the semaphore is opened and changed with signal() and wait().

The point of semaphores is that you don't care how many users are using the resource; you merely wait on a semaphore until the resource becomes available or you give up. When you're done, you signal it and off you go.

Back to the open count. FT_NWSEMLOCK() opens the semaphore as named in <cSemaphore>. After it is opened, the open count is checked. If it is anything other than 1, that means someone else has it (or you failed in your open) so the semaphore is closed and the "lock" is refused. If the value is 1, then your app is that 1 station so the "lock" is granted.

You can use a semaphore lock to control access to anything that Clipper's RLOCK() and FLOCK() can't help you with, such as text files written with the low level file i/o functions, etc.


 FT_NWSEMOPEN( <cName>, <nInitVal>, <@nHandle>, <@nOpenCnt> ) --> nRc

A semaphore is simply a label that indirectly controls network activity. There is a semaphore name, which can be up to 127 characters, and an associated value, which can range from 0 to 127.

A semaphore can be used for many things, but is most often used to limit the number of users in an application, and to control access to a network resource.

A semaphore essentially allows you to place locks on resources other than files.

An application begins the process by calling FT_NWSEMOPEN(). If the semaphore doesn't exist, NetWare will create it. FT_NWSEMOPEN() returns a handle that is used in other semaphore calls.

Applications use FT_NWSEMWAIT() to wait for a semaphore to become available. FT_NWSEMWAIT() decrements the semaphore's value by 1. If the value > 0, then the application should be allowed to access the semaphore's resource. If the value goes negative, then the application is placed in a queue. How long your app is in the queue is determined by how you set the timeout parameter. If you can't get the resource in the time you allot, you're let out of the queue and the value increments by 1 again.

When an application finishes with a semaphore, it should call FT_NWSEMSIG() to increment the value, and then FT_NWSEMCLOSE() to close the semaphore. When the semaphore's open count goes to 0, NetWare deletes it.

FT_NWSEMEX() can be used to examine the value and open count without affecting them.

For an interesting discussion on the operating system aspects of semaphores, check "Operating Systems Design and Implementation" by A. Tanenbaum, page 60. For more details on NetWare's semaphore facilities, refer to Charles Rose's "Programmer's Guide to NetWare". The "Programmer's Guide" will make an excellent companion guide to the source code for all NetWare functions in the Nanforum Toolkit.

Function FT_NWSEMSIG()

 FT_NWSEMSIG( nHandle ) --> nRc

Use FT_NWSEMSIG() when your app has finished with the resource locked by a semaphore. This will increase the value (thus making a slot available to another app).

For more information, see the description under FT_NWSEMOPEN().


 FT_NWSEMUNLOCK( <nHandle> ) --> lRet

This call unlocks a semaphore prevsiously locked via FT_NWSEMLOCK(). It is important that you get a valid semaphore handle from FT_NWSEMLOCK() before you use this call. Make sure when you call FT_NWSEMLOCK() that you pass a numeric parameter in for the handle BY REFERENCE.


 FT_NWSEMWAIT( <nHandle> [, nTimeout ] ) --> nRc

See the description for the FT_NWSEMOPEN() function.

Function FT_NWUID()

 FT_NWUID( [ <nConnection> ] ) --> cUid

FT_NWUID() returns the current NetWare userid, or "login name." This is useful for implementing security or audit trail procedures within your programs.

There is no simple way a user can "fool" this function into retrieving an incorrect value, provided a NetWare shell is loaded.

This function requires FT_INT86() and FT_NWLSTAT()

This function does NOT test for the existence of the NetWare shell. The behavior is undefined if no shell is loaded. You'll usually get garbage. This function has not been tested on NetWare 386.